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Glossary

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


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Abrasion Resistance
The ability of a coating to resist degradation due to mechanical wear.
​​​Abrasive Media
The material used in abrasive blasting to remove surface contaminants. Examples of abrasive media are sand, iron shot, crushed iron slag, glass beads or ground nut shells.
​​​Accelerator​
A substance used in small proportions to increase the speed of a chemical reaction. Accelerators are often used in the coating industry to hasten the curing of a coating system.
​​​Acrylic Latex
An aqueous dispersion of acrylic resins.
​​​Acrylic Resin
A clear resin attained by polymerizing various acrylic monomers either alone or in combination.
​​​Activator
The curing agent of a two-component coating system.
​​​Actives
This term is used to describe the strength or concentration of the detergent before it is diluted with water. The higher the percentage of actives, the more working agents the detergent contains.
​​​Adhesion
The degree of attachment between a coating film and the underlying material to which it is in contact.
​​​Adsorption
Process of attraction or attachment to a surface. The retention of foreign molecules on the surface of a substance.
​​​Aggregate
The stone matrix in concrete.
​​​Air Cap (Air Nozzle)
Perforated housing for directing the atomizing air at the head of an air spray gun.
​​​Air Drying
The most common form of curing a coating in which drying takes place by oxidation or solvent evaporation by simple exposure to air without heat or catalyst.
​​​Air Entrapment
The inclusion of air bubbles in the liquid or coating film.
​​​Airless Spray
A spraying system in which coating is atomized using high hydraulic pressure rather than compressed air.
​​​Alcohols
A group of solvents of relatively high evaporation rate but with fairly low solvent strength. Methanol, ethanol and isopropyl alcohol are common alcohols.
​​​Aliphatic Coatings
Products that are ultraviolet resistant. They will not discolor in sunlight.
​​​Aliphatic Hydrocarbons
A class of organic solvents which are composed of open chains of carbon atoms. Aliphatics are relatively weak solvents. Mineral spirits and VM & P Naphtha are aliphatic solvents.
​​​Alkali
An aqueous liquid which has a pH value of between 7 and 14. A base or caustic material.
​​​Alkalinity
A balance of cleaning properties needed for cleaning efficiency without being hazardous. Higher alkalinity means that the detergent can perform well in acidic or hard water (see pH later in this section).
​​​Alkyd Resin
Resins prepared by reacting alcohols and fatty acids. Widely used in general-purpose coatings.
​​​Alligatoring
Surface imperfections of a coating film having the wrinkled appearance of alligator skin.
​​​Ambient Temperature
Room temperature or the existing temperature of the surroundings.
​​​Amine
Materials often used as curing agents for epoxy coatings.
​​​Ammonia
A gas made up of Nitrogen and Hydrogen. Often dissolved in water to make an effective grease and soil cutting solution. Sometimes found in floor finish strippers.
​​​Anchor Pattern
The surface profile generated by abrasive blasting. The distance between peaks and valleys of the blast profile.
​​​Anode
The positive terminal of an electrical source. In a corrosion cell, the anode is the electrode that has the greater tendency to go into solution or the point at which corrosion occurs.
​​​Applied Finish
Replaceable floor finishes, which are usually applied with a mop or applicator. (See Finish.)
​​​Aromatic Hydrocarbons
A class of relatively strong organic solvents which contain an unsaturated ring of carbon atoms. Examples are benzene, toluene and xylene.
​​​Artificial Turf
An artificial "grass" carpet usually made from polypropylene.
​​​Asbestos
A non-flammable mineral fiber that was once used extensively as a fireproof insulation in buildings. Its use is now very limited because asbestos has been shown to be a carcinogen.
​​​Asphalt
Black resinous material of petroleum origin.
​​​Asphalt Tile
A floor tile that is made with inert fillers, coloring, and synthetic fibers. Asphalt is used to bind all of the components together.
​​​Automatic Scrubber
A powered floor machine that dispenses cleaning solution, scrubs it into the floor, and then vacuums it up all in one pass. Also known as automatics, or walk-behinds. May be battery powered to operate with an electrical.

​​ ​​​Barrier Coat
A coating used to isolate a coating system either from the surface to which is applied or a previous coating for the purpose of increasing adhesion or insuring compatibility.
​​​Binder
The nonvolatile portion of the vehicle of a coating which holds together the pigment particles.
​​​Biodegradable
A detergent is biodegradable when bacteria can readily break down the detergent molecules (make them inactive) and neutralize them for environmentally safe disposal.
​​​Bird's Eyes
Small circles that appear in a floor finish after it has dried. Can be caused by too much agitation during application or by applying a coat of finish too heavy.
​​​Bituminous Coating
A coal tar or asphalt-based coating material usually used in thick films.
​​​Blast Cleaning
The cleaning and roughing of a surface by the use of sand, artificial grit or fine metal shot which is projected at a surface by compressed air or mechanical means
​​​Blast Profile
Same as anchor pattern. A cross-sectional view of an abrasive blasted surface.
​​​Bleaching
The fading of a color toward white generally caused by exposure to chemicals or ultraviolet radiation.
​​​Bleeding
The diffusion of color matter through a coating from underlying surfaces causing a color change.
​​​Blistering
The formation of blisters in coating by the local loss of adhesion and lifting of the film from the underlying substrate.
​​​Blooming
A haziness which develops on coating surfaces caused by the exudation of a component of the coating.
​​​Blushing
A film defect which manifests itself as a milky appearance which is generally caused by rapid solvent evaporation or the presence of excessive moisture during the curing process.
​​​Bonding
The attachment between a coating film and the underlying material to which it is applied.
​​​Bounce Back
The rebound of atomized coating, especially when applied by conventional air spray methods.
​​​Boxing
Mixing of coatings by pouring from one container to another.
​​​Bridging
The formation of a coating film over a depression.
​​​Brittleness
The lack of resistance to cracking or breaking of a coating which bent or flexed.
​​​Broom Finish
The finishing step on concrete that is broomed to give a rough texture.
​​​Bubbling
A temporary or permanent film defect in which bubbles of air or solvent vapor are present in the applied film.
​​​Buffable Floor Finish
A floor finish that responds well to being buffed with a floor machine.
​​​Buffing
Polishing a surface, usually a floor, with a pad or brush. Often some form or powered machine is used.
​​​Build
The wet or dry thickness of a coating film.
​​​Build-up
Layer upon layer of floor wax, dirt, and grime.
​​​Builder
A chemical added to a cleaner to increase its efficiency.
​​​Burnish
To use a high speed machine, greater than 1500 RPM, to even out imperfections, used with a replaceable floor finish to achieve very high gloss.
​​​Butyl
Common name for the trade marked Butyl Cellusolve. A highly effective grease solvent.
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​​​Cap
The cap is a term used to describe the very top surface of concrete. It is very dense, hard, and normally 1/16 to 1/8 inch thick.
​​​Carnauba
A wax that comes from the Carnauba palm tree of Brazil. It was used extensively as a floor wax until recent times. Today most "waxes" in a floor finish are synthetic.
​​​Catalyst
An accelerator, activator or curing agent which chemically increases the rate of reaction in a coating.
​​​Cathode
The negative terminal of an electrolytic cell which, in the corrosion process, is protected and not attacked.
​​���Cathodic Protection
The reduction or prevention of corrosion of a metal surface caused by making it cathodic. This is accomplished by using a sacrificial anode (such as in zinc-rich coatings or galvanizing) or by using impressed current.
​​​Caustic
A strong base or alkaline material.
​​​Caustic Soda
A common name for sodium hydroxide, a strong base or alkali.
​​​Cellosolve®
Proprietary name for ethylene glycol monoethyl ether. A slow-evaporating, water miscible, relatively strong solvent often used in detergents.
​​​Cement
Cement is limestone (Calcium) mixed with clay or shale and other minerals then heated to extremely high temperature. The finished product is a powder that changes chemistry when mixed with water.
​​​Cementitious Coatings
A coating containing Portland cement as one of its components held on the surface by a binder.
​​​Centipoise
One hundredth of a poise which is a unit of measurement for viscosity. Water at room temperature has a viscosity of 1.0 centipoise. Most thin film coatings range from 50-100 centipoise.
​​​Ceramic Tile
A clay tile that has a hard, glossy surface that has been fired. Used for both flooring material and as a wall covering.
​​​Chalking
The formation of a friable powdery coating on the surface of a paint film, generally caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation resulting in a loss of gloss.
​​​Checking
Cracks in the surface of a paint film.
​​​Chelating Agent
A material that has the ability to hold metal salts in solution. A chelating agent is added to a cleaner to aid in removal of soap scum, also to make the cleaner work better in hard water.
​​​Chemical Resistance
A coating's resistance to solvents, acids and tested by contact for a given period of time.
​​​Chlorinated Hydrocarbon
A class of strong, fast-evaporating, nonflammable solvents such as carbon tetrochloride, methylene chloride or trichloroethylene.
​​​Chlorinated Rubber
A coating resin formed by the reaction of rubber with chlorine gas. Often used for chemical- or water-resistant properties.
​​​Cleaners
A detergent, alkali, acid or similar contamination-removing material, which is usually water borne.
​​​Coal Tar
A dark brown to black bituminous material produced by the destructive distillation of coal.
​​​Coal Tar Epoxy
A coating in which the binder or vehicle is a combination of coal tar and epoxy resins.
​​​Coalescence
The formation of resinous or polymeric material when water evaporates from an emulsion or a latex system, permitting contact and fusion of adjacent particles.
​​​Coat
The coating applied to a surface in a single application to form a film when dry.
​​​Coating System
A number of coats separately applied, in a predetermined order, at suitable intervals to allow for drying and curing, resulting in a completed job.
​​​Coatings
Permanent coatings, such as urethane or epoxy, which typically cannot be removed without sanding or special processes.
​​​Cobwebbing
Premature drying of a coating during spraying causing a spider web effect.
​​​Cohesion
The forces which bind the particles of a paint film together into a continuous film.
​​​Cold Rolled Steel
Low carbon, cold-reduced, sheet steel. Differs from hot rolled steel by the absence of mill scale.
​​​Color Fast
Nonfading.
​​​Color Retention
The ability to retain its original color during weathering or chemical exposure.
​​​Combustible Liquid
Any liquid having a flash point at or above 100°F (37.8°C).
​​​Compatibility
The ability to mix with or adhere properly to other coatings without detriment.
​​​Conical Mandrel
An instrument used to evaluate a coating's resistance to cracking when bent over a specified radius.
​​​Copolymer
Large molecules obtained by simultaneous polymerization of different monomers, as in vinyl copolymers.
​​​Corrosion
The decay, oxidation or deterioration of a substance due to interaction with the environment.
​​​Corrosive
A detergent is considered to be a corrosive substance when:
  • It burns or destructively attacks organic tissues, most notably the skin, lungs, and stomach.
  • It degrades metals or alloys due to a reaction with the detergent's components.
  • ​​​Cracking
    Splitting of a coating film usually as a result of aging.
    ​​​Craters
    The formation of small bowl shape depressions in coating films.
    ​​​Cross Spraying
    Spraying the first pass in one direction and the second at a right angle to the first, providing more even film distribution.
    ​​​Crosslinking
    The setting up of chemical links between molecular chains to form a three-dimensional network of connected molecules.
    ​​​Curing
    Curing is a process that limits the rate of water or moisture evaporation from concrete. It takes time for water to completely react with cement to produce high strength concrete. Curing may be done with liquid membranes, plastics.
    ​​​Curing Agent
    A hardener or activator added to a synthetic resin to develop the proper film-forming properties.
    ​​​Curtains
    Long horizontal runs in a coating film that occur on vertical surfaces when a coating is applied too heavily.
    ​​
    ​​​Damp Mopping
    The use of a tightly wrung out mop that has been dampened with plain water or a mild cleaning or disinfectant solution in order to remove light soil from a floor.
    ​​​Degreaser
    A chemical solution or compound designed to remove grease, oils and similar contaminants.
    ​​​Deionized Water
    Water which has been purified to remove mineral salts.
    ​​​Delamination
    The separation between layers of coats due to very poor adhesion.
    ​​​Density
    Mass per unit volume, usually expressed as grams per milliliter or pounds per gallon.
    ​​​Descaling
    The removal of mill scale or rust from steel by mechanical means, sometimes assisted by flame cleaning.
    ​​​Dew Point
    The temperature of a surface, at a given ambient temperature and relative humidity, at which condensation of moisture will occur.
    ​​​DFT
    Dry film thickness.
    ​​​Diluent
    A portion of the volatile components of a coating which is not a true solvent and has minimal affect on the viscosity.
    ​​​Dispersion
    The suspension of tiny particles, usually pigments, in a liquid, usually resin.
    ​​​Disposal Requirements
    Soilages should be disposed of according to local, state, and federal regulations. Check with local municipal waste treatment agencies for guidelines.
    ​​​Distilled Water
    Water which has been purified by vaporizing the liquid and collecting the vapor which is then condensed back to a liquid having, in the process, removed all salts, metals, etc.
    ​​​Drier
    A chemical which promotes oxidation and subsequent drying of a coating film. Primarily used in oil-base coatings.
    ​​​Dry Bright Floor Finish
    A self polishing floor finish that does not require buffing to obtain a level of gloss.
    ​​​Dry Fall
    A coating which is designed to dry rapidly so that the overspray can be easily removed from the surfaces below.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​ Dry Spray
    Overspray or bounce back producing a sandy finish due to the sprayed particles having partially dried before reaching the surface.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Dry Time
    Time allotted for an applied coating film to reach a set stage of cure or hardness.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Dry To Recoat
    The time required for a cured film to dry prior to the application of a second coat.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Dry To Tack-Free
    A stage at which a coating film will form a skin to which dust will not adhere.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Dry To Touch
    The state of dry at which a coating film will not transfer onto an item touched lightly against it.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Drying Oil
    An oil having the property of hardening by oxidation to a tough film when exposed to air in the form a thin film.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Dulling
    A loss of gloss or sheen.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Dusting
    Dusting is a fine powder material that comes off the surface of hardened, uncoated concrete. It is caused by wearing away the weak materials from the concrete surface.
    ​​ ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​
    ​​​ Effervescence
    An effect in the film caused by rapid solvent release. This "boiling" of solvent causes a pinholed or cratered appearance reducing gloss.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Efflorescence
    Water-soluble salts, deposited as moisture evaporates, on the exterior of brick or concrete.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Elastic
    The ability of a substance to return to its original shape or volume after a distorting force on the substance has been removed.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Emulsification
    The process of breaking down oils and fats into small particles and suspending them evenly in the water to allow for easy pickup.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Emulsion
    A two-phase liquid system in which small droplets of one liquid are immiscible in and are dispersed uniformly throughout a second continuous liquid phase.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Enamel
    A term used to characterize a coating which has a glossy smooth finish. A common term for alkyd coatings.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Epoxy
    A synthetic resin, derived from petroleum products, that can be cured by a catalyst or used to upgrade other synthetic resins to form a harder, more chemical-resistant film.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Eroded
    Eroded floors are those that have been worn through the concrete cap so that larger aggregate stones are showing. Erosion may also be caused by chemical damage, constant running water, and industrial processes.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Ester
    Compounds formed by the reaction of alcohols and organic acids.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Etching
    The treatment of a surface with an acid in order to dissolve loose particles or provide a profile.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​External Atomization
    Using air to break up a coating material after it has exited the spray gun nozzle.
    ​​ ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​
    ​​​Factory Finish
    A temporary finish applied to a floor covering by the manufacturer. This finish offers protection during manufacturing, shipment, and installation. The factory finish needs to be removed before a floor coating is applied.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Fading
    Loss of color brilliance on intensity.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Fan Pattern
    The geometry of a spray pattern.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Feather Edge
    Reduced film thickness at the edge of a dry coating film in order to produce a smooth, continuous appearance.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Filler
    A compound used to extend or bulk a coating to provide extra body or hiding power.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Film
    A layer of coating.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​��​Film Build
    The dry film thickness characteristics of a coat.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Film Integrity
    The continuity of a coating free of defects.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Film Thickness Gauge
    A device for measuring either wet or dry film thickness.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Fineness of Grind
    The degree of dispersion of particles within a liquid.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Fingering
    A broken spray pattern delivering a heavier coating to one area than another.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Finish
    A product that covers a floor or other surface for the protection and/or beautification.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Fish Eyes
    Circular voids or separations in the coating usually caused by silicone or oily spots.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Flammable
    Any substance easily ignited in the presence of a flame; any liquid having a flash point below 100°F (37.8°C).
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Flash Point
    The lowest temperature of a liquid at which sufficient vapor is provided to form an ignitable mixture when mixed with air.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Flash-Off Time
    Time which must be allowed after the application of a coating before baking in order that the initial solvents are released, which prevents bubbling.
    ​​​Flexibility
    The degree to which a coating is able to conform to movement or deformation of its supporting surface without cracking or flaking.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Floating (Flooding)
    A concentration of one of the ingredients of the pigmented portion of a coating at its surface giving rise to a color change.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Flow
    The degree to which a set coating film can level out after application so as to eliminate roller marks and produce a smooth uniform finish.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Fluid Tip
    The orifice in a spray gun to which the needle is seated.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Fluorescent
    A class of pigments which, when exposed to visible light, emit light of a different wave length producing a bright appearance.
    ​​​Force Drying
    The acceleration of drying by increasing the ambient temperature.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Foreign Thinner
    Any thinner not recommended on the label or in published literature of the manufacturer, which can affect the coating's performance.
    ​​ ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​
    ​​​ Gelled
    A coating which has thickened to a jelly-like consistency making it unusable.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Generic
    Belonging to a particular family.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Germicidal Cleaner
    A product that does a good job of cleaning as well as killing germs. Most straight germicides are not good cleaners.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Gloss
    The sheen or ability to reflect light.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Gloss Retention
    The ability to retain the original sheen during weathering.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Glycol Ether
    A group of relatively slow-evaporating, strong solvents.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Grit
    An abrasive blasting media obtained from slag and various other materials.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Grit Blasting
    Abrasive blasting using grit as the blasting media.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Grout
    The filler used between ceramic tiles on walls and floors. The grout must be sealed before the surface is put into use.
    ​​
    ​​​Hard Dry
    Full cure of a coating usually 72 hours to 1 week.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Hardener
    An activator curing agent, catalyst or cross-linking agent.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Hardwood Floor
    A floor made from any of the hardwoods, such as maple, oak, beech, or pecan. Hardwood floors require special cleaners and finishes.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Hazardous Wastes
    A waste is considered hazardous when it does not adhere to the requirements for non-hazardous wastes. These are Federal standards. State laws may be more strict than Federal laws. Detergent soilages are considered non-hazardous wastes when.
  • The flash point is above 140 degrees farenheit.
  • The pH is between 3 and 12, (Canada is between 4 and 10).
  • It is non-toxic and non-corrosive.
  • ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Hiding
    The ability of a coating to obscure the surface to which it is applied.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​High Build
    A term referring to a coating which can produce a think film in a single coat.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Holiday
    Any discontinuity, bare or thin spot in a painted area.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Hydrocarbon
    Extracts from petroleum such as gasoline, lubricating oils, solvents, etc.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Hydrochloric Acid (HCI)
    A very strong acid used in many bowl cleaners. Also known as Muriatic Acid and Hydrogen Chloride. Sometimes used in concrete etching and cleaning.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Hydrophilic
    A substance which absorbs an has an affinity for water, water loving.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Hydrophobic
    A substance which does not absorb or exhibit an affinity for water.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Hydroxyacetic Acid
    A citrus-based acid typically used in a mild pH (2.5-4.5) solution for the removal of alkaline buildup in machines or on floors and carpets.
    ​​
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Immersion
    Referring to an environment which is continuously submerged in a liquid, often water.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Impact Resistance
    The ability to resist deformation or cracking due to a forceful blow.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Incompatibility
    Unsuitable for use together because of undesirable chemical or physical effects.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Induction Time
    The period of time between mixing of two-component products and the moment they can be used.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Inert Pigment
    A nonreactive pigment, filler or extender.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Inhibitive Pigment
    A pigment which assists in the prevention of the corrosion process.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Inorganic
    The designation of compounds that do not contain carbon.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Inorganic Zinc
    A coating based on a silicate resin and pigmented with metallic zinc which has excellent resistance to organic solvents and general weathering.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Intercoat Adhesion
    The adhesion between successive coats of paint.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Intercoat Contamination
    The presence of foreign matter such as dust or dirt between successive coats of paint.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Internal Mix
    A spray gun in which the fluid and air are combined before leaving gun.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Intumescent Coating
    A fire-retardant coating which, when heated, produces nonflammable gasses which are trapped by the film, converting it to a foam, thereby insulating the substrate.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Ion
    An atom or group of atoms possessing a positive or negative electric charge as a result of having lost or gained an electron.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​���​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Iron Oxide
    An oxide of iron. The natural occurring state of steel.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA)
    A volatile, flammable liquid used as a solvent commonly known as rubbing alcohol.
    ​​
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Jiffy Mixer
    Special cylindrical mixing tool required for mixing coatings which limits air entrainment.
    ​​
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Ketone
    An organic compound with a carbonyl group attached to two carbon atoms. Usually indicates a strong, fast evaporating solvent.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Krebs Units (KU)
    An arbitrary unit of viscosity for a Stormer viscosity instrument.

    ​​ ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Lacquer
    A coating comprised of a synthetic film forming material which is dissolved in organic solvents and dries by solvent evaporation.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Lacquer Thinner
    Commonly used term used to describe a solvent blend of ethyl alcohol, ethyl acetate and toluene.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Laitance
    An accumulation of fine particles, loosely bonded, on the surface of fresh concrete, caused by the upward movement of water.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Lambs Wool Applicator
    Pure sheep skin pads. Synthetic pads deteriorate with solvent-based products.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Latex
    A stable dispersion of a polymer substance in an aqueous medium; a common term for water reducible coatings.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Lead-Free
    Contains, by weight, less than 0.5% lead for industrial products and less than 0.6% lead in consumer products.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Lifting
    Softening and raising or wrinkling of a previous coat by the application of an additional coat; often caused by coatings containing strong solvents.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Linatex
    A red rubber compound used in squeegee blades.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Linoleum
    A generic name for flooring material that is installed in sheets. However, most sheet goods are not linoleum. Linoleum is a mixture of linseed oil, resin, and assorted fillers that is heated and pressed into a burlap backing and allowed to cure. Linoleum is no longer manufactured.

    ​​ ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Marble
    A form of limestone that is hard enough to be polished. Used as a flooring material. Marble is easily damaged by harsh chemicals such as alkalis and acids.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Mastic
    A term used to describe a heavy-bodied adhesive commonly used to stick down vinyl tile an carpet.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Metal Interlock
    A type of floor finish that is water and detergent resistant. Metal salts in the finish to help to bind the product together. Metal Interlock Finishes require special strippers to remove them effectively. A term for zinc ions used to bond acrylic polymers together in a dry, bright floor finish.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Metalizing
    A method of applying atomized, molten metal such as zinc and aluminum to a surface.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK)
    A low-boiling, highly volatile flammable solvent with extremely good solubility for most vinyls, urethanes and other coatings.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK)
    A medium-boiling solvent commonly used in vinyls.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Micron
    A micrometer or one millionth of a meter.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Mil
    One one-thousandth of an inch; 0.001 inches. Commonly used to denote coating thickness.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Mill Scale
    A layer of iron oxide formed on the surface of steel plates during hot rolling; bluish in appearance.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Mineral Spirits
    A refined petroleum distillate having a low aromatic hydrocarbon content and low solubility; suitable for thinning of alkyd coatings.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Miscible
    Capable of mixing or blending uniformly.
    ​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​ ​​​Mist Coat
    A thin tack coat usually applied to fill porous surfaces such as zinc-rich primers.
    Moisture Cure Urethane
    Oil-free urethane that dries through the reaction an isocyanate with moisture in the air.
    Monomer
    A substance of low molecular weight molecules capable of reacting to form longer molecules called polymers.
    Mottled
    Spots of different tones and colors next to each other resulting in a blotchy effect on the coating film.
    Muriatic Acid
    Concentrated hydrochloric acid often diluted and used for etching concrete.

    ​​ NACE
    National Association of Corrosion Engineers.
    Neutral
    A liquid which is neither acid nor alkali such as water, pH7.
    Neutral Cleaner
    A cleaner that has the same pH as the finish to be cleaned. Since it has the same pH as the floor finish, it is "neutral" to that floor finish. The cleaner may or may not have a pH of 7.
    Non-Buffable Finish
    A very hard finish that is not repairable by buffing.
    Non-Drying Oil
    An oil which undergoes little or no oxidation when exposed to air and therefore has no film-forming properties.
    Nonferrous
    A term used to designate metals or alloys that do not contain iron; example: brass, aluminum, magnesium.
    Nonflammable
    A compound which does not burn in the presence of a flame.
    Nonvolatile
    The portion of the coating left after the solvent evaporates; solids.

    ​​ Oil Length
    The ratio of oil to resin expressed as a percentage of oil by weight in the resin. Used to determine the physical properties of a resin.
    Opacity
    The ability of a coating film to obliterate or hide the color of the surface to which it is applied.
    Orange Peel
    The dimpled appearance of a dried coating film resembling the peel of an orange.
    Organic
    Designation of any chemical compound containing carbon.
    Organic Zinc
    A zinc-rich coating utilizing an organic resin such as an epoxy.
    Osmosis
    The diffusion of liquid through a paint film or other such membrane.
    Overspray
    Sprayed coating that is dry when it hits the surface resulting in dusty, granular-adhering particles, reducing gloss and presenting a poor appearance.
    Oxidation
    The formation of an oxide; the curing mechanisms for alkyds.

    ​​ Pass
    The motion of a spray gun in one direction only.
    Passivate
    To make a surface such as steel inert or unreactive, usually by chemical means.
    Paste
    The product of the dispersion process. It is usually very high viscosity and requires dilution prior to application; a concentrated pigment dispersion used for shading.
    Pattern
    The shape or stream of material coming from a spray gun.
    Paver Tile
    A "designer-type" Quarry Tile.
    Peeling
    A paint or coating lifting from the surface due to poor adhesion.
    Permeability
    The degree to which a membrane or coating film will allow the passage or penetration of a liquid or gas.
    pH
    Literally, the "power of Hydrogen", a scale used to measure the relative strength of an acid or alkali. The scale runs from 0 to 14. A pH of 1 is highly acidic, while a pH of 14 is highly alkaline, 7 is neutral. The higher the pH above 7, the more aggressive (active) the cleaner is on the floor.
    Phenolic
    A synthetic resin used for heat or water resistance.
    Phosphates
    Phosphates are ingredients that help the cleaning ability of the detergent.
    Phosphatizing
    A pretreatment of steel by a chemical solution containing metal phosphates and phosphoric acid to temporarily inhibit corrosion.
    Pigment
    A finely ground natural or synthetic, insoluble particle adding color and opacity or corrosion inhibition to a coating film.
    Pigment Grind
    The action of dispersing a pigment in a liquid vehicle.
    Pigment Volume Concentration (PVC)
    The percent by volume occupied by pigment in the dried film of paint generally expressed as a precentage.
    Pinholing
    A film defect characterized by small, pore-like flaws in a coating which extend entirely through the film.
    Plasticizer
    An ingredient added to a floor finish to make it more flexible and less brittle.
    Polyester Resin
    A group of synthetic resins which contain repeating ester groups. A special type of modified alkyd resin.
    Polymer
    A chemical compound that consists of many small parts that are linked together to form chains. Polymer chemistry is the basis for modern floor finish technology.
    Polymerization
    A chemical reaction in which two or more small molecules combine to form large molecules containing repeated structural units.
    Polyurethane
    An exceptionally hard, wear-resistant coating made by the reaction of polyols with a multi-functional isocyanate.
    Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
    A hard, tough plastic solid used for plastics and coatings, commonly known as vinyl.
    Porcupine Roller
    Spine quill appearing roller that releases bubbles trapped in the more viscous coatings.
    Porosity
    The presence of numerous minute voids in a cured material.
    Portland Cement
    Mixture of clay, limestone, shale and gypsum when combined with water and aggregate the result is concrete.
    Pot Life
    The length of time a coating material is useful after its original package is opened or a catalyst or other curing agent is added.
    Potable Water
    Water fit for human consumption; as in drinking water.
    Practical Coverage
    The spreading rate of a paint calculated at the recommended dry film thickness and assuming 15% material loss.
    Primer
    The first coat applied to a surface, formulated to have good bonding, wetting and inhibiting properties.
    Profile
    The term used to describe the anchor pattern of a surface produced by sandblasting, acid etching or similar method.
    Pyrometer
    An instrument used to measure the temperature of a surface.

    ​​ Quarry Tile
    Similar to clay tile. Used extensively as a flooring material in kitchens.
    Quaternary Ammonium Compound (Quat)
    A class of chemicals that are excellent disinfectants.
    Quv
    An accelerated testing device designed to evaluate the fading properties of a coating by exposure to high-intensity, ultraviolet light.

    ​​ Recoating
    The process of applying successive coats of finish without removing the previous coat. The purpose is to bring back the shine and provide additional protection. Not all finishes look satisfactory after recoating.
    Recrystalization
    A restoration process used on ground stone floors, combining acid cleaners and abrasives.
    Reducer
    Commonly known as thinner.
    Reflectance
    The ratio of the intensity of reflected light to that of incidental light.
    Relative Humidity
    The ratio, expressed as a percent, of the quantity of water vapor actually present in the air to the greatest amount possible at a given temperature.
    Resilient Flooring
    A floor material that is capable of withstanding shock without permanent damage. The material will give under the load then return to its original form when the load is removed.
    Resin
    A group of organic materials either natural or synthetic, which can be molded or dissolved.
    Rheology
    The science characterizing fluid deformation or flow.
    Roller
    A cylinder covered with lamb's wool, felt, foamed plastics, or other materials used for applying coatings.
    Rubber Tile (Perelli)
    A cushioned, slip-resistant floor tile.
    Runs
    Sagging and curtaining of a coating or paint film, usually caused by improper thinning, excessive film build or poor application techniques.
    Rust
    The reaction product of steel, oxygen and water.

    ​​ Salt Atmosphere
    A moist, heavily-ladened air with a high chloride concentration; used as a test for accelerated corrosion evaluations and also present near sea coast areas.
    Saponification
    The alkaline hydrolysis of fats whereby a soap is formed; typical reaction between alkyds and galvanized metals resulting in peeling.
    Saponify
    The process of breaking down animal fats and vegetable oils into small particles. These particles then mix with the alkaline detergent and make soap. The soap mixes with water and becomes easy to remove from the surface.
    Satin Finish
    A descriptive term generally referenced to paints with a 60° gloss reading between 10 and 40.
    Seal
    A floor seal is designed to penetrate a floor surface and fill the pores prior to the application of a finish.
    Sealer
    A coating used on absorbent surfaces prior to a finish coat.
    Serrated Squeegee
    Notched squeegee for applying viscous coatings.
    Settling
    The sinking of pigments, extenders or other solid matter in a paint, on standing in a container, with a consequent accumulation on the bottom of the can.
    Shade
    A term employed to describe a particular hue or tone.
    Shelf Life
    The maximum time interval in which a material may be kept in a useable condition during storage.
    Shot Blasting
    Abrasive blasting with round iron shot, or any material which retains its spherical shape, for peering purposes.
    Silica Sand
    Clean sand made up of sharp silica particles, not containing dirt or clay, used for abrasive blast cleaning.
    Silicone Resins
    Resins based on silicone instead of carbon, generally used for their outstanding heat resistance and water repellancy.
    Skinning
    The formation of a solid membrane on the top of a liquid, caused by partial curing or drying of the repellancy
    Soft Sports Floor
    A cushioned vinyl surface used for running tracks and other sports surfaces.
    Solids by Volume
    The percentage of the total volume occupied by nonvolatile compounds.
    Solids by Weight
    The percentage of the total weight occupied by nonvolatile compounds.
    Solvent
    A liquid in which another substance may be dissolved.
    Solvent
    A product that dissolves a material completely. Used in cleaning to dissolve grease, oil, and other soils.
    Solvent Entrapment
    The encapsulation of solvent within a cured coating due to improper drying conditions; results in a noncontinuous film.
    Sound Rusted Substrate
    A rusted substrate cleaned of all loose rust and other loose materials, but not cleaned to bare metal.
    Spalling
    It is the erosion of the concrete surface, exposing coarse aggregate, from the concrete slab. This normally happens at concrete joints. It is often the result of poor troweling or vehicle wheels continually striking the edge of the concrete joint.
    Specification
    A set of instructions detailing the plan for coating of a project; a list of criteria for a coating.
    Spray Head
    The combination of needle, tip and air cap.
    Spray Pattern
    The configuration of coating sprayed on the surface.
    Spread Rate
    Coverage, usually at the specified dry film thickness.
    Stress Corrosion Cracking
    Spontaneous cracking produced by the combined action of corrosion and static stress.
    Stripper
    A product used to remove a finish from a surface.
    Strong Solvent
    Any solvent capable of dissolving large quantities of a specified subject.
    Substrate
    The surface to be coated.
    Surfacer
    Pigmented composition for filling depressions in order to obtain a smooth, uniform surface before applying the finish coat.
    Surfactant
    A surface active agent which reduces surface tension thereby improving wetting or helping to disperse pigments or inhibit foam.
    Suspension
    A relatively coarse, noncolloidal dispersion of solid particles in a liquid.
    Synthetic
    Manufactured, as opposed to naturally occurring.

    ​​ Taber Abraser
    An instrument used to measure abrasion resistance.
    Tack-Free
    Completion of the initial cure process of a coating. Airborne dust and soil no longer will be trapped in the coating.
    Tails
    Finger-like spray pattern produced by improper gun or coating material adjustment.
    Tape Time
    The drying time of a coating required prior to masking sections for lettering or stripping after which tape will not distort the finish.
    Terrazzo
    A floor surface that is made by mixing chips of marble or granite with Portland cement. Once the floor has been set, it is ground smooth and polished.
    Thermocouple
    A temperature measuring device.
    Thermoplastic
    Cured resins that become soft when heated.
    Thermosetting
    Resins having the property of becoming insoluble or hard upon the application of heat.
    Thinners
    A liquid (solvent) added to a coating to adjust viscosity.
    Thixotropic
    An adjective which describes full-bodied material which undergoes a reduction in viscosity when shaken, stirred or otherwise mechanically disturbed but which readily recovers its original full-bodied condition upon standing.
    Toluene
    An aromatic solvent with a high boiling range and low flash point classified as a strong solvent.
    Tooth
    The profile, mechanical anchor pattern or surface roughness.
    Top Scrubbing
    A heavy scrub to remove soil embedded in the top layers of a floor finish.
    Two-Pack
    A coating which is supplied in two parts and must be mixed in the correct portions before use in order to cure.

    ​​ Undercoat
    The coat applied to the surface after preparation and before the application of a finish coat.
    Underfilm Corrosion
    Corrosion that occurs under films in the form of randomly distributed hair lines.
    Urethane (Molded)
    A compound of urethane and rubber used in squeegee blades.
    Urethane Resin
    A synthetic resin that is used in wood and concrete floor coatings, and as an additive in acrylic floor finishes.

    ​​ Vapor Barrier
    A moisture-impervious layer which prevents the passage of water into a material or structure (not visqueen).
    Vapor Transmission Rate
    The rate at which moisture passes through a material or coating.
    Vehicle
    The liquid portion of a paint in which the pigment is dispersed. Comprised of binder and thinner.
    Vinyl Asbestos Tile (VAT)
    A floor tile that is made of vinyl resin, plasticizers, asbestos fibers, mineral fillers, and coloring. Once was widely used in the flooring industry but is not used today because of the asbestos content.
    Vinyl Composition Tile (VCT)
    Essentially the same as vinyl-asbestos tile but the asbestos is not present.
    Vinyl Copolymer
    A resin produced by copolymerizing vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride.
    Viscometer
    One of several types of instruments for measuring a liquid's viscosity.
    Viscosity
    A measure of fluidity of a liquid.
    Viscosity Cup
    An efflux viscometer utilizing a measured volume of liquid flowing through a precise orifice.
    Vitrification
    See Recrystallization.
    Voids
    Holidays or holes in a coating.
    Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)
    A measure of the total amount of organic compounds evaporating from a coating film, excluding water.
    Volume Solids
    The volume of the nonvolatile portion of a composition divided by the total volume expressed as a percent used to calculate coverage rate.

    ​​ Wash Primer
    A thin paint, usually a chromate, designed to promote adhesion or to be used as a barrier coat.
    Water Blasting
    Blast cleaning using high-velocity water.
    Water Spotting
    A surface defect caused by water droplets depositing a circular ring of contaminants.
    Wax
    A generic term often used for floor finishes. Comes from the time when finishes contained a large amount of true wax such as Carnauba.
    Weatherometer
    A machine designed for the accelerated testing of coatings.
    Wet On Wet
    The technique of painting whereby the second coat is applied before the first coat has dried, and the composite film dries as a whole.
    Wet Sandblasting
    The incorporation of water into the sandblasting operation in order to minimize dust.
    Wetting
    The ability of a vehicle to flow onto the surface in order to achieve a good bond.
    Wetting Agent
    Most surfactants are wetting agents. For detergents, they lower the surface tension of the water, and this improves the water's ability to penetrate and loosen soil. The faster the detergent can do this, the better the wetting speed which allows the customer to clean their floors in one pass.
    Wicking Action
    A capillary drawing action bringing oil to the surface.

    ​​ Xylene
    A flammable aromatic hydrocarbon solvent used in many coating types.
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